The Em- of Empowerment (1998)
The verb is transitive: someone gives power to another, or encourages them to take power or find power in themselves. It's used among those who want to help others identified as oppressed. In Latin America, in educacin popular, one of the great cradles of this kind of concept, the word itself didn't exist until it was translated back from English. To many people, if they know it at all, the word empoderamiento sounds strange. It's an NGO word, used by either volunteer or paid educators who view themselves as helpers of others or fighters for social justice, and is understood to represent the currently 'politically correct' way of thinking about 'third world', subaltern or marginalized people. But it remains a transitive verb, which places emphasis on the helper and her vision of her capacity to help, encourage and show the way. These good intentions, held also by 19th-century European missionaries, we know from experience do not ensure non-exploitation.
In the current version of these good intentions, 'first world' people and entities use their funds to help or empower those less privileged. They spend money to set up offices and pay salaries, many to people who remain in offices, often engaged in writing proposals that will allow them to 'stay in business.' These organizations have hierarchies, and those engaged in education or organization at the 'grassroots' level often are the last to influence how funds will be used. Those closer to the top, who attend conferences, live in Europe or have career interests in the organization , know how proposals must be written to compete in the crowded funding world. This condition of structural power should not be overlooked by those concerned with empowerment, who more often view themselves as embattled, as non-government, as crusaders situated 'against' conservative policies. Yet, when a concept like empowerment comes from above in this way, we needn't be surprised at the kind of contradictions that result-literacy programs that don't keep people interested in reading, AIDS education that doesn't stop people's refusing to use condoms.
To empower me as a sex worker you assume the role of acting on me and you assume that I see myself as an individual engaged in sex work. If I don't see myself this way, then I am disqualified from the empowerment project, despite your best intentions. The 'identity' issue here is crucial; funders and activists alike are currently interested in valorising cultural and individual difference. While it is a great advance to recognize and 'give voice to' human subjects who were before marginalized or disappeared, the problem remains that if you want to inject pride in me that I am a worker and supporter of my family and I don't recognize or want to think of myself that way, the advance won't occur, in my case.
But, you say, those are the real conditions, we live in a world of funders and partial successes. We're doing the best we can, and we acknowledge that these empowerment projects often fail. Since it's to no one's benefit that successes be quite so partial, let's consider whether there is any way which this empowerment concept might be conceived differently, forgetting for the moment the funder and his funds.
In educación popular, in programs sometimes called capacitación [capacity-building], people get together to talk, sometimes with the encouragement of a person from 'outside'. This person might be called an animadora or an educator, her job to facilitate conditions where subjects might realize they have a problem in common which, if they acted together, they might be able to move toward solving. I'm describing a very fundamental, 'pure' version, perhaps, now complicated in many places in many ways by different histories, international contacts, hybrid forms. Still, it's worth considering what the most basic idea always has been.
Here, the most the outsider does is provide the suggestion of a time and place, with perhaps a very basic reason for getting together, perhaps just 'meeting neighbors'. Who finds out about this meeting? Everyone who lives there, if it's a village or small barrio and people talk to each other fairly freely. Letting people know can be an important task of the outsider. Sometimes, in larger places, an 'identity' is targeted, but it can be a very general identity, such as everyone concerned to improve conditions in the community.
The educator/animator might suggest the group talk about a topic such as how to get running water, bus service or rubbish collection-topics of concern to everyone, including sex workers. Or she might present a question-such as why everyone is talking about migrating to work somewhere else-and hope people will respond. But if they don't, and if nothing seems to happen, her job is to resist the temptation to push the conversation. The hope is rather that if people feel free to talk, they will, eventually, if only to see if others share their feelings. This process can be extremely slow and even invisible, and no money or materials from outside are required. The profound assumption is rather that people themselves already know a lot-what they want, what they need. If they agree after some time that a technical fact or help is needed that none of them possess, then they might feel 'empowered' to search for that fact on the outside.
Does the 'outsider' actually need to be there during this process? The answer depends on the person, on how quietly encouraging she is, on how patient and undisappointed if the group doesn't 'take off', agree on anything or agrees to a program the opposite of what the funders want.
Can this vision be applied when funders seem concerned solely with the sex organs of people assumed to 'identify' themselves as sex workers? If educators must 'target' prostitutes as those who come to a meeting? Perhaps, if the same kind of mostly undirected sharing of experiences is encouraged. Many times sex workers will then be heard to discuss not sex, clients and condoms-the topics always brought up by funders-but all the other aspects of their lives, which are not peculiar to them as prostitutes. They might talk about a new song, a new dress, a new club-or a new idea for getting together to protect and help each other.
Laura María Agustín