From Violent Lyrics to Violence Against Women and Girls? (2004)


Some researchers have suggested that attitudinal differences among younger adolescents, who exhibit fewer rape-supportive beliefs than older adolescents, may be due the cumulative effect of cultural influences and repeated exposures to sexually violent material.
(Burt, MR (1980) Cultural myths and supports for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3,217-230. Centi, J. & Malamuth, N. (1984). Effects of repeated exposure to sexually-violent or nonviolent stimuli on sexual arousal to rape and non rape depictions. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 22 535-548)


Research has shown that males who listen to heavy metal music endorse more stereotypical, negative attitudes toward women that men who listen to easy-listening music.
(St. Lawrence, J.S. & Joyner, D.J. (1991). The Effects of Sexually Violent Rock Music on Male’s Acceptance of Violence Against Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 49-63)

A study in 1995 demonstrated that males who were exposed to violent "gangsta rap" videos (i.e., videos replete with images of shootings, beatings, etc.):

 expressed a greater acceptance of violence
 reported a higher probability that they would take part in violence, in comparison than adolescents in a control group
 possessed more acceptance of violence toward women, in comparison with those in the control condition

(Johnson, J.D., Jackson, L.A., & Gatto, L. (1995). Violent attitudes and Deferred Academic Aspirations: Deleterious Effects of Exposure to Rap Music. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 27-41)

Music videos are self-reinforcing: if viewers hear a song after having seen the video version, they immediately “flash-back” to the visual imagery in the video.
(Took KJ, Weiss DS. The relationship between heavy metal and rap music and adolescent turmoil: real or artifact? Adolescence. 1994;29:613-621)


Researchers in Iowa and Texas found a link between listening to violent song lyrics and feelings of aggression and hostility. The results of five different experiments designed to assess the relationship between violent lyrics and aggressive thoughts and feelings, suggest that listening to songs with violent lyrics increases feelings of aggression, at least in the short term. Even humorous violent songs seemed to have the same effect on aggressive thoughts and feelings as non-humorous violent songs. Such feelings can influence the way people view social interactions, leading them to interpret ambiguous actions as hostile and react more aggressively in turn. (Craig A. Anderson (2003) Exposure to Violent Media: The Effects of Songs With Violent Lyrics on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings, The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, May Issue 2003)

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